XenoScreen YES/YAS and XenoScreen XL YES/YAS Assay kits for the detection of estrogenic and androgenic endocrine disruptors.
Synthetic chemicals in the environment that are associated with adverse reproductive and developmental effects in wildlife mimic the actions of sex hormones.
Of major concern are such chemicals that are found in waste and surface waters, but also in certain industrial products such as plastic food containers, chemical mixtures or cosmetic products. They may interfere with the endocrine system and produce adverse developmental, reproductive, neurological and immune effects in animals and humans.
Our distributed YES/YAS kits are all-included assay kits: XenoScreen YES/YAS and XenoScreen XL YES/YAS for the detection of substances activating or inhibiting the human estrogen and androgen receptors (agonistic and antagonistic action). The receptors are stably integrated in the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) chromosome and can activate a reporter gene system upon binding of estrogenic or androgenic compounds (Routledge, E.J. and Sumpter, J.P. 1996).
The XenoScreen XL YES/YAS uses a modification of the original Routledge and Sumpter protocol which results in a higher assay sensitivity and a shorter assay time (18 hrs of exposure). It includes a cell lysis step using lyticase (Schultis and Metzger, 2004) and avoids contact of the cells with the substrate CPRG during the induction phase.